Europe and the Americas have also developed Martial Arts
Western Martial Arts are more pragmatic than their Eastern counterparts and usually have less phylosophical or mystical inclinations and simply focus on getting the business done. In almost all cases Western Martial Arts do not try to be a path to individual enlightment, and only try to provide a practical combat method. Most are sport-oriented, some are intended for military use or self-defense.
This is probably the best known amongst western martial arts. It was developed by the Gracie family of Brazil, starting from an old form of Judo (then known as Jiujitsu) and modyfing the techniques. Helio Gracie, the Grand-Master of this art was a 140-pound man and was not particularly strong, so he relied on strategy, position and leverage to negate the physical advantage of his opponents. Because of this BJJ is a great martial art for the average person, without outstanding physical ability. BJJ requires dedication and prolonged study for one to become really proficient (typically it can take 7 years or more to reach black belt level) , but my personal opinion is that it can greatly increase the self-defense capability of a person in just 50 hours of lessons, so I think the tuition is money well spent. BJJ specializes in ground fighting and has the most effective groundfighting repertoire of any martial art. The BJJ arsenal covers over 600 techniques. BJJ is not really designed to deal with multiple opponents, since going to the ground would be counterproductive in such a scenario, however it does have a few tricks that can be used in self-defense situations involving multiple opponents. I believe that the greatest achievement of BJJ is developing the positions of the "Mount" and the "Guard". These are concepts which were introduced by BJJ and are now accepted and understood as key fighting positions by any martial art practitioner. Any athlete wanting to compete in MMA must have an understanding of BJJ and its principles and techniques.
This is a Russian Style which was developed in the 1930s by blending olympic wrestling, judo and regional wrestlng styles of the Soviet Union. It developed in a complete martial art, with hundreds of techniques. Its efficacy has been proven in the UFC by the likes of Fedor Emelianenko and Oleg Taktarov. Recently more Russian fighters and particularly those from Dagestan are reaffirming the power of Sambo with their victories in the UFC. Unfortunately it is hard to find a gym that offers training outside of Eastern Europe, but this is certainly a discipline that deserves respect. Your money would be well spent training in Sambo. However, this is a discipline for physically fit and strong athlethes. Combat Sambo is essentially "amateur" MMA since it includes, strikes, throws, takedowns, ground fighting and submissions. Sambo is one of the few martial arts that will prepare an athlete for all aspects of MMA competition.
Apparently the Gracie family found Sambo very interesting (kudos to them for researching different styles in order to improve their own).
This is French kickboxing. It has relatively few techniques, however the footwork is phenomenal and makes the art very dynamic. While perhaps the strkes of Muay Thai are more powerful, Savate techniques are very deceptive, as it uses feints and great mobilty and agility to overpower the opponent. Tireurs (the Savate Boxers) are masters at closing the distance quickly and unexpectedly, strike and then evade the counterattack. It is the only kickboxing style that uses shoes. But then, if you are in the street, in all probability you will be wearing shoes too when you must defend yourself. Again, training Savate would be money well spent. Many years ago, In Milan there was a Fight between Francoise Pennachio, a French Savate Champion and Ramon Dekker, the European Muay Thai Champion. Dekker was a legend as he had fought many times successfully in Thailand and was famous for the power of his kicks. As it turned out, the Frenchman won, demonstrating that dynamic footwork and mobility can crush a more powerful but less nimble opponent.
The Savate Tireur in the video above is Francoise Pennachio (blue trunks)
This is the second Brazilian fighting style and a rival to BJJ. It is an effective style, but it is less popular than BJJ. It has recently spread to Germany and Austria. Practitioners have competed succesfuly in Brazilian "Vale Tudo" matches and aso in the UFC. Yes, your money would be well spent, if you could find a school to train. Catch-as-Catch-can probably exerted the greatest influence on this grappling style, however it has also been influenced by Judo and BJJ (probaby due to frequent matched between BJJ practitioners and Luta Livre practitioners). A German instructor has created a self-defense method based on just 36 techniques of Luta Livre, that allows practitioners to learn to defend themselves in a relatively short time.
The lancashire style of wrestling, which originated in England and then spread to America. It still exists. The Temple of Catch is the Aspull Gym in Wigan, England. This style has resurfaced in MMA competition, although its practitioners are relatively few. Catch Legend Carl Gotch trained several Japanese wrestlers, including Satoru Sayama (better known as Tiger Mask) and Sayama went on to create Shooto/Shootwrestling/Combat wrestling. Ironically, it is the Japanese that have used this western martial art the most. Kazushi Sakuraba, is well known for defeating several members of the Gracie family of Brasil, and his style was pure Catch.
Modern western boxing originated in England, but both the ancient Greeks and Romans had practiced a version of boxing for centuries (see Pygmachia).
Greco-Roman Wresting has been an olympic sport since the beginninig of the modern Olympic Games. The rules do not allow leg holds, and this limits its effectiveness (free-style wrestlers will have an advantage over "pure" Greco-Roman wrestlers). However many Greco-Roman techniques have become valuable in the MMA arena, especially clinch techniques, and many successful MMA fighters have come from a Greco-Roman wrestling background.
Freestyle-Wresting has been an olympic sport since the beginninig of the modern Olympic Games. This style is the direct descendant and the sport version of Catch-as-Catch Can wrestling.
Pankration means "all powers". Starting in 1973, Greek-American martial artist Jim Arvanitis started reconstructing Pankration techniques. Later on other Greeks started doing the same and this led to the modern sport of Pankration, which is now considered an official wrestling style by United World Wrestling, the international wrestling federation.
Gouren is a Celtic Wrestling style practiced in Bretagne (France). It is a jacket style, similar to judo. The bout is not contested over a mat, but on dirt. It is an effective and practical system, but its diffusion is limited.
Glima is the wrestling style of the Vikings. It is still practiced to this day in Iceland and Scandinavia.
This is the Swiss wrestling style and Switzerland's national sport. The bout takes place on dirt and not on mats.
This is the ancient greek boxing style.
Bulgaria has its own style of wrestling. There is no doubt that this is an effective system, but the problem is that it is not possible to study it outside of Bulgaria.
In the shillelagh the Irish have a powerful weapon, and the art of irish stick fighting is no doubt effective and useful for self-defense. Too bad that instruction is not more widely available.
Mr Eddie Bravo is no doubt an innovator and he came up with the "Rubber Guard", he adapted the "twister" (wrestler's guillotine) to BJJ and also came up with a whole new set of positions and techniques for No-GI grappling. This is essentially a whole new style of grappling.
This is French short stick fighting and it is considered a sister discipline to Savate. It is fast and very cool. It is mainly intended as a sport today, but can be adapted for self-defense.
by combining the canne with the kicks of savate the discipline of "Canne Chausson" was created.
This is a style of fighting which appeared in the Batman movies. Some of its techniques look very interesting. I am not sure if it would be viable as a complete fighting style, but many of its techniques could be used to enrich the repertoires of other combat styles.
This stile of long stick fighting traces to the middle ages. It is tipically English. It is certainly effective and devastating. However the sheer length of the weapon makes it somewhat impractical for use in many situations (imagine having to take it with you in your car). It is supposed to be 180 cm long (and sometimes up to 30 cm longer) and one and one half inches in diameter. It would be perfect if you used it as a walking stick during a hike in the mountains, as it could double as an effective self-defense weapon.
This is battlefiled wrestling developed in Germany during the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. One of the leading Masters of this art was Ott Judd (Otto the Jew), so it is surprising to me that the Israelis have not adopted it as well, as this would be their oldest martial art.
Kapap is an Israeli martial art which is more military oriented than Krav Maga.
Hungarian-Israeli martial artist Imi Lichtenfeld developed this style as a means of survival in the 1930s in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. Later on, the system was adopted by the Israeli Army and its main unarmed combat system. It has seen commercial success and there are teaching centers everywhere, so it is accessible to most people. Krav Maga means Contact Combat. I would not recommend to study Krav Maga on its own. I think one should practice a discipline like Judo, Sambo, MMA , Savate or Pankration and then learn Krav Maga on top of it to supplement his basic skills with some specific self-defense tricks. If used as an add-on to a combat sport, Krav Maga will be much more effective.
Recenty the Israeli Defense Force has started Krav Maga competitions, finally realizing that practicing techniques full contact and full speed is the only way to train successfully for the real world. Protective gear similar to that used for Nippon Kempo has been adopted. This is a very positive development and it is sure to make Krav Maga more effective.
A Venezuelan art using staff (palo), sticks and knives
This is the German art of the Longsword, originating with the teaching of Master Johannes Lichtenauer
this is a German fencing style which originated in the Middle Ages
Capoeira has a repertoire of great kicks, some of which pack serious power. Some of its kicks could definitely find a place in the arsenal of a "Western Martial Artist".
The ginga is the fundamental footwork of capoeira. Its constant triangular footwork makes capoeira easily recognizable as well as confusing since it looks much more like a rhythmic dance step than an orthodox static fighting stance. Only a few martial arts employ similar rhythmic footwork found in the ginga.
The main purpose is to prepare the body for evading, feinting, or delivering attacks while continuously shifting stances all while confusing the opponent. The ginga places the capoeirista in constant motion, making them a frustrating target for a forward-advancing opponent.The ginga also allows the capoeirista to continuously maintain enough torque to use in a strike while providing synchronization of arm movement to avoid and slip under attacks.
Capoeira Angola and capoeira regional both have distinctive versions of this movement. In Capoeira Angola, the ginga is more expressive and individualistic, while in Capoeira Regional the ginga has a more structured and defensive look.
The cadeira or paralelo is a low squat that shares many similarities with the horse stance found in Eastern martial arts. One arm protects the face while the other is extended out protecting the torso. Every time a capoeirista brings his feet parallel during a ginga, he enters this position.
An Au is more generally known as a cartwheel. An aú, in its base form, is performed very slowly, with arms and legs bent in order to keep a low target profile. Players sometime pause midway during an aú holding it for a handstand position, from which they can execute a wide variety of moves.
There is always the existing risk of receiving a low headbutt, front push kick, or some other attack while inverted. To combat this an emphasis is placed on closely watching the movements and intentions of the other player instead of the ground. While the main purpose of using the aú is more geared towards mobility and evasion there are still more ingenious variations of employing it. Capoeira players can incorporate unpredictable strikes as well as floeiros from the aú. These include inverted kicks as well as jumping movements that do not involve the hand.
Also known as volta ao mundo or au cortado. The au de frente starts much like a regular Aú, but once the legs are off the floor, the hips are turned and the move ends in a front walkover.
The au giro sem mâo aka piao sem mao combines the motions of an au de frente with those of an aerial. The au giro sem mâo starts just like Au sem mâo, but once the player jumps off with their leg, the opposite arm is driven around and towards the chest to create enough torque for the rotation. The advanced variation is the Au sem mao de frente which is literally a front walkover without hands.
A series of side to side feints done with the torso to deceive the opponent, throw off their timing, and make it harder for them to track the centerline. In a similar manner as a speedskater, the bodyweight is shifted from one leg to the other in a slight lateral hopping/sliding motion while the arms move in a similar fashion as they do during the ginga. The balança is usually done from the forward ginga and is also known as the Cavalo. As with other movements in capoeira, all types of kicks, handstrikes, or headbutts can be executed unexpectedly from the movement.
The bananeira is a handstand in capoeira that derives its name from the banana trees of Brazil. The hands are spread at least shoulder-width apart and the legs are usually together over the capoerista's head. Other variations include having the legs split apart to the side or front. One outlying difference the bananeira has in capoeira is that the face and eyes of the capoeirista are towards the other player; not the ground. While in Bananeira, the feet can be used to defend as well as attack. The bananeira's other uses can be to take a quick break and observe the other player, draw an opponent into a trap, or in the case of contemporary regional schools, show off balance and strength as a floreio. The bananeira is thought to have originated from the use of the handstand by an Nganga (Bantu healers and spiritual leaders) by showing their spiritual connection to the ancestors who walk on their hands in the spirit world.
The macaco is similar to a back handspring with the exception of starting with one hand planted behind the capoeirista and the initial movement starting from a low crouch. The macaco begins by lowering the body down into a low crouch and placing one hand on the floor directly behind the back making contact with the ground. The other hand is thrown over the body while jumping off with both feet to launch the hips straight over the head. This back sweeping movement mirrors the motion that a swimmer adopts when performing a backstroke. As the capoeirista passes into a handstand position, the second hand is placed onto the ground before bringing the first foot makes contact with the ground. The macaco shares visual similarities with the valdez. Variations can include beginning and finishing with the first arm and/or landing with both feet simultaneously. The move is commonly known as the jump of the monkey as the word Macaco literally translates to monkey.
This movement is very similar to the macaco with the exception being that it is lower and less explosive. The knees are in a more forward bent position while one arm is placed directly behind the balls of the feet. Instead of jumping as with the macaco, the capoeirista lowers his/her external oblique onto his elbow and brings his other arm and legs over. The macaquinho, which means little monkey, is a combination of a macaco and queda de rins.
This is a macaco that is done without a hop or crouch. The macaco em pé resembles the combined motions of a back walkover and a cartwheel. Instead of crouching and jumping, the capoeirista falls backwards onto one arm while bending his back and allowing his hips to go over his head while moving into a standard macaco motion.
This is also known as a Xango. It is a standard back handspring. Instead of placing one hand on the ground and flipping, an abrubt leap is made backwards in an arch while extending the hands over the head.
lit. negative, refusal or deny. a negativa is used to negate an attack by going low to the ground on one's side, with the leg closest to the ground tucked to the chest, the other extended, supporting one's body weight with the hand, with the upper arm in a location to protect the face. The negativa derrubando used as a sweep which involves hooking the other players supporting leg during a kick.
Rolê: This 'rolling' motion is - together with the Ginga and the Au - the basic method of moving around in the Roda. This move can be performed from Ginga or from most of the esquivas. It is essentially a spin to one side by the capoeirista while remaining low to the ground and always watching the other player. One of the hallmarks of the move is that during the part where the back is facing the opponent, eye contact is maintained via looking between the legs to watch for an attack. The rolê can end easily in roxana, Negativa, or various esquivas. The Rolê de Cabeça variation is performed by placing the head on the ground in the middle of the rolê so as to be able to transition into various headstand techniques.
Literally Change of Foot, From a Negativa position with the leg extended, a slight hop during which the extended leg becomes the support leg and the guard arm becomes the support arm and vice versa.
The ponte is a bridge with the stomach facing upward and the hands and feet pushing to keep the back arched and off the floor. Most learn to roll into a ponte by turning their legs and hips around first and then inverting into a bridge. The capoeirista can then roll out into a cocorinha, queda de rins, or resistincia for a stylish entrance into a roda. The ponte also doubles as a last resort esquiva although that depends on the player's skill level, style, and speed of the game. Another interesting fact is that Mestre Bimba would give a potential student (aluno) a series of tests before actually teaching them at his academy. One of the tests was a measure of the applicant's natural ability to hold a bridge
The queda de rins (fall on the kidneys) can be used as an esquiva or a launching point for a technique. It involves supporting the torso with the inside elbow and the head, often with the knees resting on the supporting elbow. The head is usually the lowest with the feet and at the highest in a rough 45° angle. The legs themselves may be together, tuck, split depending on the position.
One of the simplest defense movements. With the feet flat on the ground the player squats with the knees to the chest so as to close the body and covers the side of the torso and head with one hand while the other is flat and to the side for support.
Another variation of this involves squatting with the balls of the feet on the ground and arms crossed in front and above the face.
Literally escape or dodge. Many forms exist but all involve moving the head and torso out of the way of an attack. Esquivas distinguish capoeira from many other martial arts for the simple fact of going along with flow of the attack and releasing an equal or more devastating attack. Many of the attacks in capoeira are fully committed kicks that would cause more injury blocking them instead of dodging them. Blocking attacks upset and imbalance the flow of the game making esquivas more common in rodas. Blocks do sometimes occur when one player is so caught off guard that they are used instinctively. The most common situations being defenses against hand attacks.
Also known as Esquiva de Frente."Low dodge", this has the looks of an extremely low ginga. The rear leg and foot are exaggerated and placed even farther back to bring the hips lower to the ground. The torso is bent forward bringing the head even lower. If the left foot is back then the right hand is placed on the floor; the left hand is used to guard the face and head.
"Side escape" or side dodge. It is executed while the feet are in a parallel position. The escape is simply bringing the torso down and to the left or right (depending on the direction of the other player's kick) and reaching the hand over the head The hand can also be placed in front of the face for protection. Some academies will place the hand that is not guarding onto the floor to get even lower.
This is a dodge that simultaneously dodges and advances forward. Instead of going straight down under an attack or off to the side like in the esquiva lateral or esquiva de frente, the capoeirista steps diagonally of to the left or right of the attack. He/she places his front foot in a perpendicular position to his back foot and crouches down at the knees in a low lunge. The left or right arm comes up to protect the face depending on the direction of the attack while the other arm maintains the body’s balance. This is a quite useful esquiva because many counterattacks are available to the player from this position which can include martelos, ganchos, or vingativas saving valuable time.
Literally fall of four. Simply fall backwards into a crab-walk position, often followed by scurrying backwards and away from the opponent.
Falling back onto the wrists and one leg. The other leg is up because this position is often "forced" when the player is taken down from being supported on a single leg. For example: sweeping the base leg of armada leads the fallen player to, hopefully, end in this position.
This is very similar to its sister, the negativa. However, instead of resting on the entire sole of the foot, the ball of the foot supports a majority of the weight with the arm on the opposing side helping. The fingers on the supporting hand are spread out flat to protect the wrist. The other arm is raised slightly to protect the face while the other leg is extended outward with a slight bend to it. This slight bend is very important as it protects the leg from any trauma that a straight leg would fracture under. Because the knee is extended farther past the supporting foot, stretching of the quadriceps and gastrosoleus muscles are a necessity for this position because of the added stress it places on the knee after prolonged use. Most beginners tend to look down at the floor in while in resistência, it is highly advised to always look up and keep sight of the other player. As some capoeira groups each have different names for movements, the resistência is sometimes known as the negativa.
An armada is a reverse roundhouse kick, also described as a spinning inside to outside crescent kick. It can be either a Rabo-de-Arraia without the hands supporting on the floor (the head falls below the waist and the kick is executed with the heel), or a Meia lua de Costas (halfmoon from the back), a spinning kick with the body upright. The striking surface is usually the outside blade of the kicking foot. A queixada and armada are executed in exactly the same way with the exception of the armada beginning with a step to the right or left before releasing the kick. The power of the armada actually comes from the torque placed on the hips from the spin.
After stepping across the body (to the right or left) at around 45 degrees, the hips are spun while the arms are up to protect from punches or other kicks. Once there is enough torque, the kicking leg is "released" rather than kicked. This leg goes around in the same motion as a queixada until the kicking leg has finished its arc all the way back or parallel to the other foot.
An Armada that is released after a jump. The armada pulada begins the same way as the regular armada with the capoeirista turing to the left or right. Once the head, neck and shoulders rotate towards the front, he/she jumps during the release of the armada making it a spinning aerial kick.
Also known as an Envergado. The distinguishing feature of this move is the fact that both legs remain together during the take off, execution, and landing. Its name, Armada dupla, is derived from this feature and also literally means "double armada". After the take off, the torso stays upright and vertical, but will begin to quickly torque in order to swing the legs around and upwards. At the peak of this move, the body is in the shape of a "V". The legs continue to swing over as the body straightens out for the landing. In tricking, this move is called a double leg. Along with the Meia Lua Compasso and Au Malandro/Batida, the armada dupla one of the trademark kicks unique to the art capoeira.
The armada com martelo is a spinning double kick beginning with an armada pulada and finishing with a martelo. The capoeirista begins with the same motion of the Armada. While the first leg is raised up, he/she jumps off their back leg. Once the first leg completes its arc, the leg that was jumped off of comes around in the form of a jumping martelo rotado.
Literally "blessing". It is a straight forward frontal push kick. It is commonly aimed at the abdominal or chest area, and the capoeirista hits with either the whole sole of the foot or with the heel. The level of impact varies with its range and intent from a soft tap to an inward jumping stomp to the head, or torso.
Chapa, the sole of the foot, is a generic term for various straight kicks with the sole or heel of the foot. This kick can be used in a roda to push away the other player for distance. These include:
It resembles a kick from a horse or mule in which both hands are usually on the ground while one of the legs is pushed outward towards the other player. It is a clever attack that can be delivered out of a role towards the groin or knee of the other player.
A straight kick facing the opponent sometimes performed from a Queda de Quatro, pushing with the hips to gain greater extension. It has the look of a Bençao given from a Queda de Quatro.
Another variation being a side kick. First the player begins by lifting the knee of the kicking leg and hip level of the support leg. The capoeirista turns his supporting foot 180 degrees to the rear while thrusting the kicking foot towards the other player's body.
This is a side kick to the lower areas including the thigh, knee, or instep. Impact is usually made with the heel or sole of the foot. As with the pisào, the chapa baixa begins with a forward knee raise. However, instead of rising upwards towards the usual kicking targets capoeira (head, chest, stomach), the kick is driven downward towards the other player's lower extremities. It incorporates the malacia in capoeira appearing as a high kick but ending in an unpredictable painful kick to the knee or thigh. In most rodas this is shown rather than completed to full extension. During the later rounds of his title defense in UFC 97 with Thales Leites, Anderson Silva made extensive use of this technique.
Capoeira’s answer for the sole kick. It is done is the same way as ban dae yeop chagi in Taekwondo with the capoeirista stepping forward or diagonally while turning his torso. At the same time he raises his back leg up, unleashing it at the apex of the turn in a straight path.
There are actually two different versions of the escorpião. The attacking one is very similar to the scorpion kick of other martial arts. It is characterized by kicking backwards, over the head, at a target in front of the kicker impacting with the sole or heel of the foot. The escorpião is very hard to see and is extremely dangerous in the hands of a master.
The gancho lit. hook, is a hook kick. It is a deceptive attack that starts off in the same way as a martelo or roundhouse kick. The knee and thigh of the kicking leg is brought up and across the body in a diagonal direction. Instead of thrusting in and out like a chapa, the leg is extended toward the body and thrust out in a hooking motion striking with the heel or sole. The path of the heel ends near the buttocks and hamstring as it is brought down. There are other ways of using it such as fake martelos into in or from fake chapas. Because of its deceptiveness, the name gancho is perfect for it since it can sometimes act as the hook for a bait attack that is seen far too late.
A spinning version of the gancho. It starts out like a spinning chapa but deceptively lashes out and hooks around in the same manner as the gancho.
The martelo, which literally means "hammer", is generally defined as a strike with the instep, or lower part of the shin against the opponent's body; the most common target is temple of the head. The most common forms of the Martelo include:
This is the most common martelo seen in Regional and Contemporânea rodas. Its execution on the very basic level is identical to the sport version of the roundhouse kick commonly seen in Tae Kwon Do and kickboxing. Capoeira emphasizes using kicks anywhere at anytime so advance forms of the martelo em pe can come from fakes, skipping and kicking with the front leg, and from other dodges such as the esquiva diagonal. Emphasis is placed on speed and deception rather than knockout. Even with this precaution knockouts still occur due to the weight and sheer force of the leg.
It is a martelo that starts from the ground. The Martelo do Chão is delivered from a lower position usually right before a rolé while in esquiva baixa or downward going into a queda de rins.
This is a variation of blends the movements of s dobrado with martelo do chão. The martelo de negativa begins with a hop generating more force since the entire body is used. Other names include chapéu de couro and s batida.
A spinning martelo. The martelo rotado combines the 540 or parafuso with a martelo. Whereas the parafuso is a spinning outside to inside crescent, the martelo rotado impacts with the instep. Control is sacrificed for power as the leg does not stop, but follows through with a full rotation of the hips.
The Meia-Lua de compasso (lit: compass half moon) aka.rabo do arria, is an attack that embodies the true element of Capoeira since it combines an evasive maneuver with a spinning kick. The transfer of power begins with the hand slamming into the ground and ending with the spin of the kicking heel. The power of the kick derives its energy from the similar centripetal force of a golf club swing. The transfer of power begins with the spin of the hand slamming into the ground and ending with the spin of the kicking heel. It has earned its place in capoeira as being called the "king of kicks". There is even a saying among capoeira mestres on how a capoeirista's general skill level can be determined on how well and fast they are able to execute a Meia lua de compasso.
There are even reports from around the 1910s of a capoeirista named Francisco da Silva Ciríaco defeating a jiu-jitsu champion named Sada Miako with this kick. It's also believed that Valdemar Santana defeated his former master Helio Gracie with a Meia Lua de Compasso, although other sources cite it as a simple soccer kick to the head or midsection.
This is a spinning kick done without either leg in contact with the ground. The meia lua de compasso dupla combines the motions of a diagonal front handspring and a meia lua compasso using only the hand(s) to support the body during the kick. . It is rarely seen because of the core muscles that it engages requires a high level of balance and strength. The meia lua de compasso dupla combines the motions of a diagonal front handspring and a meia lua compasso using only the hand(s) to complete the spin.
The meia lua solta is executed in the opposite manner as the meia lua de compasso dupla. Whereas in the dupla the arms are solely used, in the solta the pivoting leg and foot are used. It is said to be much faster than the Meia Lua de Compasso but also much more risker. Taking a foot sweep while performing this can be dangerous because of the lack of a supporting arm to spot the kick. Some groups refer to this as a chibata because of its fast whipping motion.
A kick that begins as a meia lua de compasso but ends like a front walkover. The capoeirista releases the kick but instead of bring the kicking leg around completing the motion, he follows the kick with his entire body. He will usually land on the kicking leg and rotate 180 degrees to face the other player again.
Queda de Rins means falling on the kidneys. This move is a combination of a meia lua de compasso and the QDR. While turning to release the kick, the capoeirista lowers himself unto his supporting elbow. He/she can complete the movement in a number of ways with the most common one being the transition into the resistençia.
|Meia Lua de Compasso Variations|
Meia Lua de Frente (Front Half Moon) is an outside-inside crescent kick seen in other martial arts. This kick involves using the hips to generate enough force to bring the foot of the kicking leg across the face of the player. While it can be used as an attack itself, it mainly is used as a poke or trap for another attack. Other uses for it can be as a combination with cartwheels and other acrobatic moves therefore working as an escape.
Ponteira is the simple front snap-kick with the ball of the foot. It is performed by lifting the knee and quickly extending the leg with toes pulled back while tilting the torso slightly backwards to strike the opponent in the abdomen, chest or face. Contrary to the Benção this is intended as a hard and fast striking kick.
This is one of the most commonly used of the basic kicks in contemporary regional. To execute with the right leg, one begins in mid-ginga stance, with the left leg back and the right forward. From this position, step slightly to the left with the right leg, shifting body weight onto the forward (right) leg while the body faces left. Immediately bring the left leg forward, crossing it behind the right while beginning to throw body weight forward to gain momentum. When the body weight is fully resting on the left leg, release the right leg, kicking it in a large, sweeping arc to the right, keeping the leg straight throughout. When the kick has been completed, the capoeirista is now in mid-ginga stance, except now with the right leg back and the left forward.
Throughout this move one must always remember to guard his or her face using the thick part of the forearms (as is done in all capoeira moves). Reverse all directions (left-right and vice versa) in order to execute a queixada with the left leg.
A raiz is a type of kick used in contemporary regional. It could be described as a sideswipe with less rotation, so the practitioner lands on the rear leg from the take off instead of the kicking leg. However, in terms of tricking, the raiz is not a kick, but rather an evasive move aimed to avoid an attack toward the legs. The set-up for the raiz is exactly like the 540 kick, but the technique required for a successful raiz is similar to a Double Leg. In starting this move, the practitioner turns slightly sideways at the waist with the arm-swing motion. Once the set-up is accomplished, the first leg is thrown straight up while having the head thrown back.. This motion causes the practitioner's back to become parallel to the ground. The first leg travels around like a Double Leg and the second leg trails behind it. The first leg lands first on the ground and the second leg lags behind. The second leg should not be rushed, but rather be relaxed and let it fall by itself.
The S-Dobrado is the generic name for a series of motions that takes a capoeirista from a low position to whip one leg across the floor in a half circle, then kick up his legs and invert on to his hands and then land back on his feet and stand. The S refers to shape traced by the motion of the leg which leads the move. It is used as a transitional move and there are many variations of the S-Dobrado. A basic S-Dobrado can start from a Negativa, whip the straight leg around in a half circle to face the other direction, kick up into a Macaco. Another variation involves going from Corta Capim, then kicking up into Macaco. While inverted, the capoeirista can Au, or stop and do a Bananeira, or even sink down into a Queda De Rins. It is a very versatile technique for a capoeirista.
Literally translated as the "Flight of the bat". This is a flying kick done sideways with both legs. It is executed virtually in the same manner as a dropkick; however, the knees are drawn back in after making contact and one lands on their feet. It would be ridiculous to perform this in the same way as pro wrestlers since landing on the ground would injure the capoeirista more than the kick. Since it is an aerial attack, balance and control are sacrificed for raw power. As with any attack, the effectiveness of this attack depends on the timing, weight, and body mass. It was a very popular attack in past times, but it is rarely seen in rodas today. In the anime series Afro Samurai, Afro utilizes this kick against his opponents in season 2 although it's not specified where he learned this kick.
Jogo de Braços or "the game of the arm and hand". Traditionally, hand strikes were rarely used in capoeira, the mythological reasoning behind this being that the shackles and chains of the slaves prevented this. Even if this is so, punches, elbows, and slaps have always existed in street rodas all around Brazil. Today, this game of the arm and hand is seen more in the Capoeira Angola rodas. Some players attempt to distract or fascinate their opponent by waving their arms and hands in a spellcasting like way. This jogo or game represents a swinging and waving of hands to diminish any perception of an attack and lower the other player's guard.
While the literal translation of this is based on suffocation or rather the act of it, the asfixiante is a straight punch thrown with either hand. Taking clues from its name, the target may have originally been the throat instead of the face.
The Cutelo is a knife hand attack. It is applied in the same way as the generic karate chop usually to the face, temple, or base of the neck. The arc of travel for the cutelo usually begins on the outside to inside combining a backhand attack with a knifehand. The cutelo is not as present in rodas as it once was.
The cotovelada is an elbow strike usually from outside to inside. In all forms of martial arts, range plays a very important role. When two capoeristas are playing a close aggressive game it would be foolish to throw a kick or punch at such a close range. The cotovelada is a quick surprise attack when things get too close. Ths strike can really hurt if performed right
An attack to the eyes that reveals the street fighting origins of capoeira. It is rarely executed in rodas today because of the harm it can cause. It is an eyepoke with the index and middle finger of the attacking hand. This attack was usually done to disorientate the target for a quick escape or in some cases, rob them. In most capoeira rodas, the Dedeira will be shown, but never fully executed. When combined with the element of surprise, the dedeira was a very useful ambush weapon.
The galopante is more of a slap than a punch. The capoeirista strikes the side of the opponents face or ear with his open hand in a swinging motion. In most cases the galopante is not meant to cause much damage to the opponent. It is instead used as a distraction or to tell the opponent that his guard is too open. However, it is a handslap that follows the same trajectory and principles of a hook punch using the body's core making it just as damaging in the right "hands".
Backhand strike, normally to the face. The hand can made into a fist making it a backfist or done openhanded as a slap. When swinging, the arms are relaxed making the strike faster and the sting more painful. The godeme is obviously an aggressive attack. According to Capoeira lore, the move was named when Mestre Bimba was sparring with some Americans. He was establishing the names they had for various techniques when performed this strike to the head to his partner, who responded with a hearty "God damn!" which Mestre Bimba assumed was their name for it. While the error was explained to him afterwards, he liked the name enough to retain it.
An attack with both hands slapping the opponent's ears at the same time. This attack is used rarely in the roda as it is considered too aggressive. The telefone is very painful and disorienting because of the sudden burst of air pressure entering the ear canal. It is very possible for this attack, if done in a malicious way, to cause permanent damage to the eardrum. Its name is a use of wordplay based on a telephone call.
This is a headbutt that involved the capoeirista throwing his full body into the headbutt. While the cabeçda can be seen as playful, this is its more violent cousin. By usually ducking under a kick or punch, the player will spring forward with full force targeting the head, stomach, or groin.
The Cabeçada (pronounced: ka-be-SA-da, lit.: head butt) is an offensive movement of Capoeira in which the attacker pushes the opponent with his head or forehead. Generally a cabeçada is performed when the opponent is executing an open au (cartwheel) but can be performed against any move where the belly of an opponent is exposed. A less playful version of this technique is when instead of the forehead both elbows are pushed into the defenders abdomen. Another variation on this technique involves first entering a push-up like position but with the hips raised the head is then thrust forward into the target. This is usually used when both players are on the ground.
This is a less playful headbutt that moves in an upward direction. The head goes under the attack and comes up hitting the bottom of the chin. This gives it the same application as an uppercut combined with the weight of the entire body rising along with the head.
Takedowns are normally considered a bit aggressive in capoeira, and attempting a takedown might be seen as a test of one's skills. However, the frequency of takedowns in the roda varies from group to group and type of game. One situation where takedowns are common, is during the Batizado ceremony. This is when the Mestre (Master) gives the new students their first cordão, or the senior students their next cord according to their progression in capoeira. In such a ceremony, the mestre(s) will try to take his students down, sometimes several times during a game. In the same manner of a baptism of going underwater and emerging a new person, the takedown of a novice is seen as bring them down and them rising as a new baptized capoeirista.
Due to the strong emphasis on kicking, the most common takedowns in capoeira are sweeps; however, there are also other takedowns utilizing the hands, arms, legs or shoulders to push, lift, or even throw the opponent to the ground.
This throw is rarely seen. Its use was a more designed for self-defense. If an attacker was approaching the capoeirista from behind using a club or cheap punch, the capoeirista would duck under the attack simultaneously scooping the leg of the attacker up. He would continue the motion, the attacker off of his shoulders and slamming him to the ground. The closest throw to this is the kata guruma also seen in judo.
The above version is found in the books by Nestor Capoeira; however, in the original Regional style of Mestre Bimba, Acoite de Braco (lit. arm whip) is a shoulder throw similar to ippon seoi nage in judo - capoeirista grasps one arm of his opponent with both hands, turns around and throws him over the back.
Classic leg takedown. The capoeirista grabs the opponent behind the knees and pulls/lifts while pushing the opponent backwards with their shoulder, driving him to the ground. While seen as a double leg takedown, in many situations it will change to a single leg takedown. Ironically in the evolution of things, this move is usually countered with a sprawl or even a guillotine choke depending on the school or academy. An alternate technique used by some groups is for the capoeirista to take the opponent down laterally, as opposed to a football-tackle style takedown. Using their head to push the opponent's hips sideways, forcing the opponent to balance upon one leg, the capoeirista then uses their arms to sweep the remaining leg from underneath the opponent, completing the takedown. The opponent's legs should be swept so that they land in front of the capoeirista's legs instead of in between, for defensive reasons. Upon discovery of this takedown, some casual viewers learn to see capoeira as more than a recreational "dance".
Banda is a sweep kick, the objective of which is to pull one of the opponent's feet making him lose his balance and fall. It usually is performed from a standing position. What separates the banda from the rasteira is that the sweep is mostly done with the heel of the foot instead of the instep.
A defensive counter-attack performed against a kick. This is usually reserved for circular kicks such as the armada or queixada. By following the motion of the kick, the capoeirista steps to the outside of the kicker and uses one hand to push them forward while the closest leg reaps the supporting leg of the kicker. It looks identical to the osoto guruma in judo.
The banda de dentro or passa pe is a similar sweep as the rasteira em pe. While the banda de costa focuses on sweeping the kicking leg from the inside instead. While one capoeirista is delivering a kick such as a martelo, the other player steps inside and sweeps the supporting leg in an inside to outside motion.
A takedown executed by grabbing the opponent's pant legs or ankles and pulling.
A version of the Boca de Calça that involves turning your back, reaching between your legs, and pulling the other player down by his ankles or cuffs. It is usually done crouching under a kick and pulling the supporting ankle of the leg not extended through the capoeirista's leg. This is not as easy as it sounds because of the timing involved. Many who see this coming would go for a rear naked choke by hopping onto the capoeirista's back. A dangerous counter to this is a jump backwards ensuring the person applying the choke receives the blunt force of the ground..
literally "Grass Cutter" this sweep is done largely as a counter. The capoeirista drops beneath the kick and brings the knife edge of his/or her foot across into the attackers ankle or instep. this technique is rarely preformed with any real force. It is more used to show what could have been done. The movement is identical to the Coffee Grinder movement in breakdancing.
This is another example of a takedown in capoeira that uses the attack against the attacker. When a straight kick such as a chapa or bencão is thrown towards the capoeirista, he simply ducks under the attack. After ducking under the kick, he catches and traps the kicking leg with his back( Trapezius muscle and shoulders) and outstretched arms forming a cross. By standing up (or in some cases jumping) with the kicking leg trapped along the blades of his shoulder, he provides the leverage necessary to knock his attacker to the ground.
While in a negativa, the front foot slips behind the heel of the other opponent. After catching the pull of the leg along with the instep hooking the heel should cause the player to fall backwards.
Much like the rasteira, the paulista is a sweep that uses the instep. However, instead of sweeping with the outside leg, the inside leg is used.
A Rasteira is a movement used to sweep or pull an opponent's leg in response to a kick. The capoeirista ducks under the kick, hooks the opponent's standing foot with his instep and pulls in a straight motion. The rasteira allows the capoeirista to use the muscles in the torso as well as his body weight, making it a much more powerful move than a banda. Rasteiras are usually used when medium-high kicks are in motion and done in the same direction as the kick. e.g. Opponent uses armada, a well placed rasteira to the inside leg turn will make him/her lose their balance and fall. Many mestres agree that the rasteira is a true embodiment of what capoeira really is. Instead of meeting the kick with a block or brute force, the capoeirista goes along with the force of the kick using his opponent's force and confidence against him. The theory being that the more commitment the player gives to the attack, the harder they will fall from the rasteira.
Much like the rasteira above, this movement is virtually the same with a few differences. While the rasteira is used more for circular attacks such as meia lua de compasso or queixda, the rasteira em pé is more suitable for quicker direct attacks such as the martelo. The capoeirista does not crouch as low when hooking his foot around the supporting leg of the other kicker. This version of the rasteira allows for a faster execution.
A rasteira de costa is a spinning sweep that follows the motion of a meia lua de compasso with the sweeping leg maintaining contact with the floor. The leg travels in a half circle and sweeping the supporting leg of the opponent his lower leg or heel. It resembles the suimengeri found in karate.
This sweep uses the hand. Sometimes in a close game when using the leg requires too much time and energy, this is used instead. While going along with the motion of the kick, the capoeirista ducks under the kick, grabs the non-kicking leg, and pulls it leg with his/her hand in the same manner as a rasteira.
Tesoura lit. scissors, aka. Tesoura de Costa, is a scissor takedown wrapping one leg over the front of the opponent's body near the stomach with the other behind both knees, and then twisting one's own body in the direction the players wants the opponent to fall; usually on their back. It is virtually identical to a kani basami.
A variation of the Tesoura (scissors) that targets the legs instead of the torso. The tesoura de Frente moves in low, hooking the outside leg with the calf of one leg while simultaneously using the knee of the other leg to trap to the opponent's inner thigh with the knee. With a small amount of effort, the capoeirista rotates his torso away from his opponent using the trapped knee as a lever, knocking the opponent off balance. This move requires a high level finesse and timing.
Commonly performed from negativa or queda-de-rins, the capoeirista goes to a prone position, legs facing the opponent and scissored out, hips twisted to protect the groin, supporting themselves on their hands and toes. They then advance upon the opponent by pushing themselves along with their hands, watching by craning their neck over one shoulder, threatening a tesoura de frente. The opponent is expected to escape, traditionally via an aù or by diving over the attacking capoeirist, possibly going into their own Tesoura Angola upon landing. A more daring escape can be performed by traveling under the attacking capoeirista, optionally striking them with an escorpiã you pass under them.
Meaning the Tumbling Slope, AKA, João Pequeno (named for Mestre João Pequeno who is known for making the move popular). In Capoeira Angola it is a kick from out of an au when one of the legs comes down as an axe kick. The Tombo de Ladeira can also be performed from Rolê position (Queda de Três). It is most effective when the opponent's head is low to the ground.
According to Nestor Capoeira, Tombo-de-Ladeira is a takedown in which one takes advantage of an opponent using an aerial or close to aerial attack or movement by standing up from beneath them. Needless to say, it is dangerous for both parties involved.
A low takedown that involves stepping forward and trapping the back legs of an opponent that is in a side stance. The capoeirista also protects his face with his elbow. Once the lead leg of the capoeirista has trapped the leg of the opponent, he shifts the weight in his hips forward and up. If the contact is maintained with the legs the other player then he should be thrown up and away. It should be noted that although this move originally came from batuque, it has similar appearances as some throws/sweeps in Baguazhang, as well as the tai otoshi done in some styles of karate. Other schools teach a variation which resembles more the sukui nage or obi otoshi found in judo.
Floreios can refer to two things: a) The complex movements in the ginga of capoeira Angola used as feints, stylistic variations, etc... b) Acrobatic movements in contemporary regional, sometimes in capoeira Angola, that aren't generally considered offensive or defensive in a game. These include:
A hypered variation of the folha seca in which a quick change of legs is done in mid air and is landed on the non kicking leg. In this move, right after the take off, the kicking leg swings over and around the non kicking leg creating a helicopter like motion.
Bandeira is an advanced capoeira combination in which the player performs a fast cartwheel which is immediately followed by a side flip. This move can be often seen in capoeira regional roda.
A Folha Seca lit.dry leaf is very similar to a Flash Kick. It is a more lateral kick with the capoeirista kicking with more of a slant in his body during the rotation. After turning at least 90 degrees to the left or right, the capoerista raises his kicking leg up while jumping off of his support leg. He brings his arms up while hollowing out his back. He continues the kick until he lands on his kicking leg.
A Chute na lua lit.kick to the moon is a combination of a Flash Kick and gainer. While it can commonly be linked to an S-dobrado, it can also be performed out of nowhere. After pivoting on the non kicking leg, the kicking leg is swung straight through and up. Both arm are raised and the back is hallowed out. The kicking legs is kept straight while the non kicking leg is bent. The kicking leg continues all the way around until the capoeirista lands on it.
The relogio has simimlar mechanics as the hand glide in B-boying. The main exception to the rule is that the body is resting on the kidneys in a more lateral manner with the body facing to the side. The entry into a relogio usually begins in the same way as a rolé. The body turns as both hands touch the ground. One hand is lifted as the body is rested on the elbow of the arm in contact with the ground. The spin point is the small portion of the carpus (same as the 1990 or piao de mao), so that there is a minimal amount of friction between the hand and the ground.
A Hand spin that is done in a very similar way as the 1990 in breakdancing. The capoeirista begins by turning his body in the same manner as a meia lua de compasso. By generating enough torque, he raises his leg which is the opposite the hand he places down. Keeping the weight of the entire body focused on the outer lower portion of his palm, the capoeirista can keep the circular momentum spin going by lowering the amount of friction between his hand and the surface simultaneously alternating hands during the spins. The variations and ending positions for this move are virtually limitless.
It is a headspin in capoeira. There are numerous ways of executing this technique. One of them being, after going down into a queda de rins, the capoeirista brings his legs and hip over until all of his weight is on his head and shoulders. By twisting his hips and legs around in a counter clockwise/clockwise fashion, the body's core develops torque. After releasing his/her hands from the ground, the capoeirista will spin for 180 up to 720 degrees around (depending on his/skill level and balance). One rule of thumb being that the capoeirista begins this move facing the other player. This particular move has been a subject of debate in the ongoing argument of capoeira influencing being the direct predecessor of breakdancing.
Also known as a Mortal. It is essentially some kind of flip. This is one of the many movements that separates Capoeira Regional from its grounded sister, Capoeira Angola. Capoeira is known for its acrobatics and the mortal is one of its many indicators. Always depending on the toque of the game and sometimes group, a mortal can be done at almost anytime during the game. Since many capoeiristas see the game of capoeira as an interacting physical dialogue between two bodies, the mortal’s place in capoeira is well received depending on its timing. Most mortals are done during the entrance into a roda with a fast paced game. With so many dynamic movements in capoeira, a mortal is done from almost any spinning kick or au. With all things in capoeira, there is some debate over the "overuse" of mortals and other flips as some see them as only shallow movements that take away from the effectiveness of the martial art.
This is a generic term for a back somersault. Usually, but not limited to, entering into rodas and solos during performances. After executing a round off and back handspring (xango), the player jumps up while raising both his arms and knees. He/she continues over until landing on both feet. The variation that capoeira is known for is the landing on one foot.
The mariposa is not a butterfly kick, but rather a Butterfly twist. While there are many entrances into the spin (for example, a capoeirista could enter into the movement with a folha secca and then continue with the movement, which is more commonly called a corkscrew), it is commonly seen as a complete 360 spin of the body while it is horizontal in the air. Debate has surfaced on when this first appeared. In the final fight scene in Only the Strong, kung-fu artist Marc Dacascos executes this as his finishing move against the other fighter. Since then, the mariposa has been spotted in rodas all over the world.
A helicoptero is an Aú with a circular movement of the legs, like a helicopter. The technique starts off as a regular au, but when the body is inverted (both legs are off the ground), a twist of the legs is done so that the leg that left the ground second lands on the ground first.
This technique can be combined with the "master swipe" from tricking to add more spin and make the move more aesthetic. The master swipe is a cartwheel where the inside leg leaves the ground first in contrast to the outside leg from a regular cartwheel
Armada Dupla is one of the signature moves of capoeira. It is performed as an un-tucked side flip with legs forming a 90 degree angle. Unlike the side flip, this move doesn't use the tucking motion to get the rotation. Instead, it is done by jumping upwards and torquing your body. At one point, your legs will simply follow through with the momentum of your body and drive you around.
This is a Brazilian combat method for military and police, but also for personal defence.
It is an interesting martial art, but it needs to be updated in response to the MMA revolution.
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full contact combat sport that uses both striking and grappling techniques, both standing and on the ground, taken from a variety of other martial arts. The combat sport of Vale Tudo that had developed in Brazil from the 1920s was brought to the United States by the Gracie family of Brazil, which organized the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) in 1993.
Originally promoted as a competition with the intention of finding the most effective system for real unarmed combat situations, competitors were pitted against one another with few rules. Someone wanting to learn "MMA" would have to study several different martial arts, usually Muay Thai, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Wrestling, as there is no distinct "MMA Martial Art" per se. However numerous gyms are providing the necessary training to fighters and so an "MMA system" is effectively being developed.
Famous MMA gyms are:
In the early 1990s, practitioners of grappling based styles such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu dominated competition in the United States. Practitioners of striking based arts such as boxing, kickboxing, and karate who were unfamiliar with submission grappling proved to be unprepared to deal with its submission techniques. As competitions became more and more common, those with a base in striking arts became more competitive as they cross trained in arts based around takedowns and submission holds. Likewise, those from the varying grappling styles added striking techniques to their arsenal. This increase of cross-training resulted in fighters becoming increasingly multidimensional and well-rounded in their skill-sets.
The new hybridization of fighting styles can be seen in the technique of "ground and pound" developed by wrestling-based UFC pioneers such as Dan Severn, Don Frye and Mark Coleman. These wrestlers realized the need for the incorporation of strikes on the ground as well as on the feet, and incorporated ground striking into their grappling-based styles. Mark Coleman stated at UFC 14 that his strategy was to "Ground him and pound him" which may be the first televised use of the term.
Since the late 1990s, both strikers and grapplers have been successful at MMA, though it is rare to see any fighter who is not schooled in both striking and grappling arts reach the highest levels of competition.
Most 'traditional' martial arts have a specific focus and these arts may be trained to improve in that area. Popular disciplines of each type include:
Most styles have been adapted from their traditional form, such as boxing stances which lack effective counters to leg kicks and the muay thai stance which is poor for defending against takedowns due to the static nature, or Judo and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, techniques which must be adapted for No Gi competition. It is common for a fighter to train with multiple coaches of different styles or an organized fight team to improve various aspects of their game at once. Cardiovascular conditioning, speed drills, strength training and flexibility are also important aspects of a fighter's training. Some schools advertise their styles as simply "mixed martial arts", which has become a style in itself, but the training will still often be split into different sections.
Boxing is a martial art that is widely used in MMA and is one of the primary striking bases for many fighters. Boxing punches account for the vast majority of strikes during the stand up portion of a bout and also account for the largest number of significant strikes, knock downs and KOs in MMA matches. Several aspects of boxing are extremely valuable such as footwork, use of combinations, and defensive techniques like slips, stance (to include chin protection and keeping hands up) commonly known as Guard position, and head movement. Boxing based fighters have also been shown to throw and land a higher volume of strikes compared to other striking bases at a rate of 3.88 per minute with 9.64 per minute thrown (compared to muay thai at 3.46 and 7.50, respectively).
Muay Thai, along with boxing, is recognized as a foundation for striking in mixed martial arts and is widely practiced and taught. One of the primary benefits of training in Muay Thai for MMA is its versatility. Techniques include long, middle and short range with everything from kicks to clinch holds and throws. It originated in Thailand, and is known as the "art of eight limbs" which refers to the use of the legs, knees, elbows and fists.
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu came to international prominence in the martial arts community in the early 1990s, when Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu expert Royce Gracie won the first, second and fourth Ultimate Fighting Championships, which at the time were single elimination martial arts tournaments. Royce fought against often much larger opponents who were practicing other styles, including boxing,Wrestling, Amateur Wrestling (including Freestyle, Greco-Roman, and American Folkstyle), shoot-fighting, karate and tae kwon do. It has since become a staple art and key component for many MMA fighters. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is largely credited for bringing widespread attention to the importance of ground fighting. It is primarily considered a ground-based fighting style, with emphasis on positioning, chokes and joint locks.
Amateur wrestling (including Freestyle, Greco-Roman, and American Folkstyle) gained tremendous respect due to its effectiveness in mixed martial arts competitions. Wrestling is widely studied by mixed martial artists. Wrestling is also credited for conferring an emphasis on conditioning for explosive movement and stamina, both of which are critical in competitive mixed martial arts. It is known for excellent takedowns, particularly against the legs.
Karl Gotch was a catch wrestler and a student of Billy Riley's Snake Pit in Whelley, Wigan. In the film Catch: the hold not taken, some of those who trained with Gotch in Wigan talk of his fascination with the traditional Lancashire style of wrestling and how he was inspired to stay and train at Billy Riley's after experiencing its effects first hand during a professional show in Manchester, England. After leaving Wigan, he later went on to teach catch wrestling to Japanese professional wrestlers in the 1970s to students including Antonio Inoki, Tatsumi Fujinami, Hiro Matsuda, Osamu Kido, Satoru Sayama (Tiger Mask) and Yoshiaki Fujiwara. Starting from 1976, one of these professional wrestlers, Inoki, hosted a series of mixed martial arts bouts against the champions of other disciplines. This resulted in popularity of the clash-of-styles bouts in Japan. His matches showcased catch wrestling moves like the sleeper hold, cross arm breaker, seated armbar, Indian deathlock and keylock.
Karl Gotch's students formed the original Universal Wrestling Federation (Japan) in 1984 which gave rise to shoot-style matches. The UWF movement was led by catch wrestlers and gave rise to the mixed martial arts boom in Japan. Wigan stand-out Billy Robinson soon thereafter began training MMA legend Kazushi Sakuraba. Catch wrestling forms the base of Japan's martial art of shoot wrestling. Japanese professional wrestling and a majority of the Japanese fighters from Pancrase, Shooto and the now defunct RINGS bear links to catch wrestling.
The term no holds barred was used originally to describe the wrestling method prevalent in catch wrestling tournaments during the late 19th century wherein no wrestling holds were banned from the competition, regardless of how dangerous they might be. The term was applied to mixed martial arts matches, especially at the advent of the Ultimate Fighting Championship
These fighters will often study submission wrestling to avoid being forced into submission in case they find themselves on the ground. This style can be deceptively different from traditional kickboxing styles, since sprawl-and-brawlers must adapt their techniques to incorporate takedown and ground fighting defense. Mirko Filipović, Chuck Liddell, Mark Hunt and more recently Junior dos Santos. (May 22, 2013).
Ground-and-pound is a strategy consisting of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw, obtaining a top, or dominant grappling position, and then striking the opponent, primarily with fists, hammerfists, and elbows. Ground-and-pound is also used as a precursor to attempting submission holds.
The style is used by fighters well-versed in submission defense and skilled at takedowns. They take the fight to the ground, maintain a grappling position, and strike until their opponent submits or is knocked out. Although not a traditional style of striking, the effectiveness and reliability of ground-and-pound has made it a popular tactic. It was first demonstrated as an effective technique by Mark Coleman, then popularized by fighters such as Chael Sonnen, Don Frye, Frank Trigg, Jon Jones, Cheick Kongo, Mark Kerr, Frank Shamrock, Tito Ortiz, Matt Hughes, and Chris Weidman.
An Example of ground and pound strategy
While most fighters utilize ground-and-pound statically, by way of holding their opponents down and mauling them with short strikes from the top position, a few fighters manage to utilize it dynamically by striking their opponents while changing positions, thus not allowing their opponents to settle once they take them down. Cain Velasquez is one of the most devastating ground strikers in MMA. He attacks his opponents on the ground while transitioning between positions. Whether he's moving from mount to back mount or from turtle to side control, he is constantly landing shots. Fedor Emelianenko, considered the greatest master of ground-and-pound in MMA history, was the first to demonstrate this dynamic style of striking in transition. He was striking his opponents on the ground while passing guard or while his opponents were attempting to recover guard.
In the year 2000, MMA play-by-play commentator Stephen Quadros coined the popular phrase lay and pray. This refers to a situation where a wrestler or grappler keeps another fighter pinned or controlled on the mat to avoid a stand up, yet exhibiting little or no urgency to finish the grounded opponent with a knockout or a submission and basically stalling a decision for the majority or entirety of the fight, basically taking the opponent down, holding on tight, referee stands them back up, and repeat again—a sort of extreme form of defensive wrestling. The implication of "lay and pray" is that after the wrestler/grappler takes the striker down and lays on him to neutralize the opponent's striking weapons, he prays that the referee does not return them to the standing position. This style is considered by many fans as the most boring style of fighting and is highly criticized for intentionally creating non-action, yet it is effective and some argue that lay-and-pray is justified and that it is the responsibility of the downed fighter to be able to protect himself from this legitimate fighting philosophy. Many consider Jon Fitch to be the poster boy for lay and pray. UFC Welterweight champion Georges St-Pierre has been criticized by fans for playing it safe and applying the lay and pray tactic in his fights and so has Bellator MMA Welterweight champion Ben Askren who justified applying lay and pray, explaining that champion fights are much harder because they are 5 rounds long compared to the usual 3 round fights.
Submission-Seeking is a reference to the strategy of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw and then applying a submission hold, forcing the opponent to submit. While grapplers will often work to attain dominant position, some may be more comfortable fighting from other positions. If a grappler finds themselves unable to force a takedown, they may resort to pulling guard, whereby they physically pull their opponent into a dominant position on the ground.
Submissions are an essential part of many disciplines, most notably Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, catch wrestling, judo, Sambo, and shootwrestling. They were popularized in the early UFC events by Royce Gracie and Ken Shamrock.
Clinch-Fighting is a tactic consisting of using a clinch hold to prevent the opponent from moving away into more distant striking range, while also attempting takedowns and striking the opponent using knees, stomps, elbows, and punches. The clinch is often utilized by wrestlers and Judokas that have added components of the striking game (typically boxing), and Muay Thai fighters.
Wrestlers and Judoka may use clinch fighting as a way to neutralize the superior striking skills of a stand-up fighter or to prevent takedowns by a superior ground fighter. Ronda Rousey with her Judo background, is considered a master at initiating throws from the clinch to set up armbars.
The clinch or "plum" of a Muay Thai fighter is often used to improve the accuracy of knees and elbows by physically controlling the position of the opponent. Anderson Silva is well known for his devastating Muay Thai clinch. He defeated UFC middle weight champion Rich Franklin using the Muay Thai clinch and kneeing Franklin repeatedly to the body and face - breaking Franklin's nose. In their rematch Silva repeated this and won again.
Other fighters may use the clinch to push their opponent against the cage or ropes, where they can effectively control their opponent's movement and restrict mobility while striking them with punches to the body or stomps also known as dirty boxing or "Wall and Maul". Randy Couture used his Greco Roman wrestling background to popularize this style en route to six title reigns in the Ultimate Fighting Championship.
In general, fighters who cannot win fights through lightning offense, or are more suited to win fights in the later rounds or via decision are commonly known as grinders. Grinders aim to shut down their opponent's game plan and chip away at them via clinching, smothering and ground-and-pound for most of the rounds. Prominent examples of grinders are Pat Healy and Chael Sonnen.
This is intended as a military combat system.
We are unsure whether the unorthodox techniques used in this style are really effective, so we cannot recommend it.
ENGLISH WWII COMBATIVES
Training manuals and videos exist, but this "art" is not practiced or taught to the public, like, for example, Krav Maga.
EUROPEAN KNIFE FIGHTING.
A new martial art is being born. Several schools of Knife fencing from Russia (Tolpar School), Ukraine, Italy and other countries have been meeting and holding tournaments.
CHUN KUK DO