Arduino In 2005, in Ivrea, Italy, a project was initiated to make a device for controlling student-built interaction design projects with less expense than with other prototyping systems available at the time.
Arduino Materia 101 an open source 3D printer based on Arduino manufactured by Italian 3D Printing company Sharebot 
Automobile, the Italian word given by Francesco Di Giorgio Martini to drawings he made in 1470. The Italian meaning is "move by itself". Later on his colleague, Leonardo da Vinci also came up with drawings in 1495.
cAD3 vaccine an experimental Ebola virus vaccine developed by Swiss-Italian biotechnology company Oikaros under the leadership of Dr Riccardo Cortese. Clinical trials are starting in the Fall of 2014.
Calderara Seaplane, was an innovative design which greatly improved the performance of seaplanes 
Cam hammer invented in the 1480s by Leonardo da Vinci
Doxorubicin a chemotherapy agent invented by Farmitalia Spa in the 1950s.
Dry Compass was invented by Flavio Gioja (fl. 1302), an Italian pilot from Amalfi, has been credited with perfecting the sailor's compass by suspending its needle over a compass card, thus giving the compass its familiar appearance.
D-Shape a new 3D printer capable of printing entire buildings invented in 2004 by Enrico Dini 
Knockout mice, genetically engineered mice which are used to study the function of genes, developed by Italian-born US Scientist Mario Capecchi in 1989. Prof Capecchi was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Medicine for this innovation.
Magnesium Battery. An unusual type of Magnesium Battery was invented in 1999 by Vito di Noto and Maurizio Fami at the University of Padua. Able to store twice the energy of a lithium battery of the same weight.
Musical notation, staff notation invented by Guido d'Arezzo in 1028 AD. To this day, the entire world's maestro's still exclusively uses the Italian language to describe how the notation is to be played.
Opera House, the first public opera house was the "Teatro San Cassiano" opened in Venice in 1637 and survived until 1800.
Oxygen rebreather, a design for an ARO apparatus which was practical and reliable was developed in Italy by Dario Gonzatti-Emilio Cressi—Duilio Marcante in the 1930s. Emilio Cressi became the founder of the Italian company Cressi-Sub.
Pantelegraph, a device for telegraphic transmission of writing and drawing invented by Giovanni Caselli. Commercial service started in 1865. It was the first functional Fax Machine to enter commercial service
Parachute, first described by Leonardo da Vinci in 1480. His design was built to the original specifications and it actually worked in a test
Parawing, developed in 1957 by Francis Rogallo, an Italian-American engineer.
Shopping Center The earliest example of public shopping mall was the Trajan's Market in Ancient Rome built around 100-110 AD by Apollodorus of Damascus.
Spring powered cart A self-propelled mechanical cart, part of a larger robot, designed by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1480s
Stem cells as vectors for Gene Therapy: In 1992 Doctor Claudio Bordignon working at the Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy performed the first procedure of gene therapy using hematopoietic stem cells as vectors to deliver genes intended to correct hereditary diseases
Stem cell transplant to treat Systemic Lupus Erythematosus was first attempted by Alberto Marmont De Haut Champs in 1996.
Star fort It was first seen in the mid-15th century in Italy
Stiletto, a type of narrow dagger which appeared in the Middle Ages
Vega (rocket) a rocket developed chiefly in Italy (65%) with the collaboration of other European Nations (Spain, Belgium, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden). First flight took place in 2012. The last stage of the rocket has the ability to use the propulsion system to adjust the orbit.
Vespa On 23 April 1946, at 12 o'clock in the central office for inventions, models and makes of the Ministry of Industry and Commerce in Florence, Piaggio e C. S.p.A. took out a patent for a "motorcycle of a rational complexity of organs and elements combined with a frame with mudguards and a casing covering the whole mechanical part". This design became one of the most popular motoscooters worldwide and is still in production.
Vibram rubber soles, invented in 1937 by Vitale Bramani
Welfare The earliest form of welfare was the lex frumentaria instituted by the tribune Gaius Gracchus dating back to 122 B.C., a law that ordered Rome’s government to supply its citizens with allotments of cheaply priced grain.
The Space Tether Experiment in 1996 was a collaboration between NASA and Italy and called for a scientific payload--a large, spherical satellite--to be deployed from the US space shuttle at the end of a conducting cable (tether) 20 km (12.5 miles) long. The idea was to let the shuttle drag the tether across the Earth's magnetic field, producing one part of a dynamo circuit. The experiment worked, proving that large amounts of electricity were produced, so much so that the tether itself was melted
Comau an Italian company who is a leader in industrial automation and developed many innovations in this field. In particular the Smart5 line of industrial robots. Today all major automotive manufacturers use Comau machines.
Latin alphabet derived from the Greek alphabets became the foundation of many languages worldwide.
Roman Law which is the foundation for the Law of many countries.
Roman acqueduct made it practical to transport water over distances of dozens of kilometers.
Beretta AR70/90 one of the best and most reliable assault rifles ever produced. The Alpini nicknamed it "Excalibur".
Eurofighter Typhoon. Italy is one of the members of the multinational consortium that builds the Typhoon. The aircraft is innovative because the goal of its designers was extreme agility at high speeds, unlike aircraft such as the Sukhoi 27 and the F-22, which opted for agility at slow speed. To this, one must add the ability to supercruise, sustain very high G turns thanks to a special suit worn by its pilots and the ability to engage off-boresight targets. The aircraft is low-observable and is hard to spot with the naked eye, while its IRST sensor allows it to detect "stealth" aircraft at ranges of 50 kilometers. Armed with the new IRIS-T missile, it becomes a formidable dogfighter and effectively negates any perceived advantage of Stealth aircraft.
Fabian strategy. A guerrilla-warfare strategy first impelemented by Quintus Fabius Maximus "Cunctator" in 217 BC
Franchi SPAS-15 A legendary automatic shotgun which earned the nickname of the "Key of the Commando". It was featured in the 2002 action movie Showtime, but its Italian origin was not revealed and it was characterized as a "custom job, probably from Eastern Europe".
IRIS-T a missile developed by a German-led consortium, in which Italy holds a 19% stake. The missile was developed after the Luftwaffe realized that the AA-11 Archer missile was far more advanced than first thought. As of 2014 IRIS-T is one of the most capable and most agile air-to-air missiles and vastly outclasses both the Sidewinder and the Archer.
PIRATE, The Passive Infra-Red Airborne Track Equipment system is an infrared search and track (IRST) system mounted on the Eurofighter Typhoon. SELEX Galileo is an Italian company which is the leading contractor on the project. PIRATE is capable of detecting stealth aircraft at surprising ranges, thus effectively negating the advantage of stealth.